The Female Iban Attire (Ngepan Indu Iban)

baju iban 3The Iban ngepan (or traditional attire) is generally worn for special occasions (Gawai), ceremonies, rituals and dances. The Iban comprises about 30% of Sarawak’s population, with varying differences in terms of dialect, tradition and ngepan. Most famous of the use and promotion of the ngepan in current times is for the Kumang Gawai. Kumang is the Mother Goddess of the Iban back in the animistic days. Considered a supreme beauty and great weaver, she is now embodied in the annual Pekit Kumang, a beauty pageant that showcases the traditional attire of the female Iban as well as other qualities commonly associated with the great Kumang. The winner of the competition is crowned Kumang, which is held in many parts of Sarawak at various levels.

Due to the huge distances and location between different groups of Iban, each has developed its own different and and yet somewhat signature ngepan indu (female costume/attire). However, now a modern standard has been set that only allows a potential Kumang to wear a specific set of ngepan with its accompanying accessories, roughly based on the Iban of Saribas’ ngepan to be worn for Pekit Kumang.

1. Sugu Tinggi (Silver Headgear)

  sugu tinggi (         Picture sourced from :

2. Marek Empang/ Tangu (Worn around the shoulder)

marek empang ( sourced from :

3. Kain Karap/Kebat (traditional woven skirt or Pua Kumbu)

Kain kebat ( sourced from :

4. Lampit (Silver Belt)

lampit ( sourced from :

5. Rawai (Silver Corset)

rawai ( sourced from :

6. Tumpa Pirak/Bentuk (Silver Bangles)

tumpa pirak ( sourced from :

7. Gelang Kaki/Gerunchung (Anklets)

gelang kaki ( sourced from :

8. Buah Pauh (Silver Purse) buah pauhPicture sourced from :

9. Selampai (Sash)

selampai ( sourced from :

10. Tali Ujan/Mulung (Fine Silver Chain)

tali ujan ( sourced from :

11. Sementing Buchai/Sengkiling (Coin Corset with Dangling Coins)

sementing buchai (mgepanibanonline)Picture sourced from :

The diversity of the Iban ngepan is evident with the rise of increasing awareness among younger Ibans and Sarawakians. Here are some samples of other types of ngepan indu Iban. Bear in mind that there are many more types not listed here.251412_10150251515707606_1086414_n

baju ibanNgepan Skrang

kuasNgepan Kuas Sri Aman (Source:

baju iban 2Ngepan Saribas (Source:

I cannot be sure as to why a standard form was set, but it was most probably due to a need to allow a cohesive look to band together the Iban identity during the rise of nationalism and preventing tampering that might occur due to over-creativity. There are both opponents and supporters of various forms of ngepan, but the main thing is to understand that we should celebrate the great diversity of ngepan we now have and know about, as well as preserving it for future generations.


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